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Audit
Section:   en » Economic terms » Audit      16 января 2015  
Audit (audit) - a procedure independent assessment of the organization, system, process, project or product. Most often, the term is used in relation to the verification of financial statements of companies.

Distinguish operational, technical, environmental, quality and other varieties of the audit. Certain types of audit are close in meaning to the certification.

Etymologically, the word "audit" is derived from the Latin. audio - «I hear." The need for audit is supposed to have originated at the same time with the birth and development of barter and monetary relations. The oldest evidence of the audit are to China around 700 BC. e. Development of the audit was closely connected with the peculiarities of financial and industrial history of individual countries and is determined primarily the nature of capital market.

In the Middle Ages in European trading cities at the request of counterparties merchants (usually other merchants or banking institutions) auditors checked the books and merchants showed their reliability. In the XIX century became the main customers of the audit, in addition to creditors, owners of companies - due to the rapid development of joint stock and limited companies in which the owners have not engaged in the current management and, therefore, require periodic inspection hired managers.

Globalization of the economy, the creation of transnational corporations with lots of units, often scattered across the country and even around the world have greatly increased business needs in an independent auditor. In addition, the growth of government intervention in the economy and the complexity of the tax system, the company began to experience the need for independent professionals who can verify accounting and tax statements of the company in order to identify errors and distortions reporting and prevention of sanctions by the public authorities.

In the XX century in connection with the active development of the stock market a new category of persons interested in the audit - investors. Typically, each new wave of scandals associated with the bankruptcy of companies whose shares or debt securities are exchange listed and actively traded, turns prosecution auditors and stricter requirements for auditors and the performance of their inspections. In view of the large number of investors have become more active and demanding consumers of audit services.

Since the mid XX century auditors began to expand its sphere of interest and began to carry out activities not only to validate the financial statements, but also began to conduct themselves accounting for other organizations, acting as a collegial corporate accountant and a lawyer, as well as an investment advisor and trustee for its customers. In addition, the technological revolution has forced the company to master the audit function by the introduction of modern technologies for enterprise management, automation of accounting, introduction of quality control systems and other related works.

types of audit

In the XX century the audit was divided into two major groups:

- Financial / Investment audit;
- Industrial audit.

Financial and investment audit

Financial audit - this is the audit in the classic sense, that is, checking financial statements and expressing an opinion about its reliability. Closely related to him and investment audit - an opinion on targeted and effective use of investment resources and audit professional participants investing activities (exchanges, investment and construction companies). Also close to the financial audit adjacent auditing activities and activities for inventory. Depending on whether you are audited by an independent auditor reporting company or its own employees, decided to distinguish between independent (audit in the classical sense) and internal audit.

industrial audit

Industrial audit more complex phenomenon because it includes elements of financial (in terms of cost of products, confirming the validity of tariffs for services - for example, housing services) and purely technical audit.

Under the technical audit checks by independent experts understand the organization of production, control systems and quality management, applicable technical and technological solutions, as well as checking the technical condition of machinery equipment, machinery, buildings, utilities, systems and networks, and verification of the technical and project documentation with an expression of opinion on the reasonableness of the applied technical / technological solutions, methods of production management and compliance with the technical state of engineering complex systems and equipment requirements of the regulations.

Close to the Industrial Audit adjacent inspection activities - that is, supervisory activities (the manufacture, construction, assembly, commissioning) technically complex products with so-called hidden work (work that can not be seen and take on the quality of the future - for example, foundation work) and work on independent acceptance technically complex products (ships, turbines, technological systems), and a proven track record of design parameters, as well as acceptance of consignments with acknowledgment of their properties, quantity and quality.

Varieties are industrial audit environmental audit (proof load on the environment), energy audit, operational costs and confirmation of tariffs (mainly used to justify the price of the products of natural monopolies and other) and other kinds of special audits (eg - ESD-audit) .

Audit staff

Audit staff - this definition, assessment of personal potential employees and compliance with corporate culture and values of the company.

In the course of the audit level is set to relevant staff that office, the estimated personal qualities, provides a comprehensive description of the employees.

environmental audit

Environmental audit of the company - a comprehensive and independent assessment of compliance with the requirements, including the requirements of applicable international standards, norms and regulations in the field of environmental safety, environmental management and environmental protection, as well as providing recommendations and documentation to improve the performance of enterprises and organizations in the environmental field.
 
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